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When the disease was first described in the 19th century, it was called “hay fever ile with a misnomer. Hay fever definition is misnomer. Because only straw doesn't cause this. Later, it was determined that the disease was related to pollen but the term aman hay fever devam continued to be used. In addition to pollen, nutrients (such as peaches, strawberries, snacks, eggs, chocolate, fish), house dust, animal hair, or substances encountered in the occupational environment can also cause allergies. (Rhinitis is an inflammation of the nose.) Allergic rhinitis or hay fever is the state of swelling of the intranasal cover with sneezing and discharge. Every year, many people suffer from allergic rhinitis. Some of them get through very lightly, some are too heavy for others, affect their lives and impair their quality of life.
According to the duration of exposure to allergen and related findings, there are two separate forms, seasonal and year-round. Seasonal allergic rhinitis occurs in temperate climates at certain times of the year when allergenic pollen and fungal spores are dispersed in the air, for example tree pollen in early spring, meadow pollen, late spring early summer, grass pollen cause symptoms until frost develops in late summer autumn.
The disease can start at any age but usually begins at a young age (1-20 years). America the rate of 9-21%, is seen in a study by 11.7% in Turkey. Mostly, the family has the same disease. If any of the parents has an allergy, 29% will have an allergy, and if both have an allergy, 47% will have an allergy. Although allergic rhinitis is not a severe disease, it can be extremely uncomfortable; affects sleep, eating and lifestyle; loss of school and labor. Urban life has increased the incidence of allergic diseases. Environmental pollution is thought to play a role in this. In addition, the risk of developing asthma is 4 times higher than people without allergies.
Another substance that causes allergy is molds called. Mold.. Moldlar molds the bread, leads to spoilage of fruits. It is also found in dry leaves, meadows, straw, seeds, other plants and soil. As they are cold resistant, the allergy season is long and their spores are found in the air except when the snow covers the soil. Molds live in plants and soils in the house. It is found in cheese and fermented drinks as well as in damp places such as basements and laundry rooms. The number of houseplants should be reduced to avoid molds.
Nasal congestion in patients with allergic rhinitis, sneezing attacks, watery clear nasal discharge, itching of the nose and eyes (also conjunctivitis-eye inflammation), itching in the palate and larynx, cough, snoring, nasal speech, sensation of fullness in the ear, nausea and headache visible. People with allergic rhinitis may experience sinus infections, hearing loss due to fluid accumulation in the ear, and nasal polyps. The source of allergy-causing pollen is various herbs and trees. Pollen accumulate by sticking to the nose, eyes and throat. If the allergen of a plant or animal enters the body, the immune system reacts to prevent this invasion. Under normal circumstances, this is a useful and natural protection. However, in some people, this reaction is excessive. They are described as allergic. Allergen substances stimulate the body to make antibodies. They then combine with allergen substances to secrete some chemical substances. The best known of these substances is histamine. These chemicals form the findings described above.
In cases where allergy is considered, some allergy testing is mandatory to confirm the diagnosis. These tests are divided into four groups: blood, nasal secretion and skin tests, and intranasal allergen stimulation test.
After the diagnosis of allergy is confirmed, appropriate treatment should be initiated. Treatment can be grouped under 4 separate headings:
1- Stop contact with allergen stimuli,
2- Drug treatment,
3- Hyposensabilization (vaccine treatment)
To avoid contact with allergen stimuli, it is ideal to choose to live away from where your allergy occurs. Unfortunately this ideal application can rarely be done. However, the following recommendations should be made as much as possible;
1. Wear a pollen mask when cutting grass or cleaning the house.
2. Replace the filters in the heating and ventilation systems monthly or start using an air purifier.
3. Keep doors and windows closed when the pollens are very dense.
4. Do not keep plants and animals at home.
5. Replace feather pillows, woolen blankets and wool covers with cotton or synthetic materials.
6. Use enough antihistamines and decongestants when necessary.
7. Sleep with the head of your bed raised.
8. Follow general health rules.
- Exercise every day.
- Stop smoking and avoid other air pollution.
- Minimize carbohydrates in a balanced diet.
- Add vitamins to your diet (vitamin C)
9. Follow your doctor's advice Use a good room humidifier (steam) in winter. Because dry indoor air causes many allergic people to deteriorate. However, also pay attention to the chance of fungal growth in the humidifier.
Many drugs are used in the treatment of allergy. These include antihistamines, decongestants, chromoline and cortisone drugs. These drugs can be used individually or in combination. The characteristic of drug treatment is that it acts very quickly. Side effects of cortisone sprays used in the nose are extremely low. However, it is beneficial to use these drugs regularly at the lowest dose and effective.
Recommended if complaints persist for more than 2 years despite environmental control and medication. The special feature of this treatment is that patients can offer real improvement, which is the basic desire. This method attempts to change the response mechanism of the immune system. Its effect is slow and only the vaccine is used to improve the substances. Application is done by administering a certain amount of allergen substances to the body. The procedure is carried out under the supervision of an expert. Treatment is carried out for 3-5 years. If adequate recovery is not observed within the first 3 years, treatment is discontinued.
Surgical treatment; more particularly for the treatment of overgrown nasal flesh or polyps. These methods can be used individually or in combination. Even if the most effective treatment method is applied, if the allergen substances are encountered intensively, there is little chance of success.
Dr. More professionals named Bülent Öztürk
Acıbadem Bursa Hospital
Child Health and Diseases Specialist