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It is accepted that one tenth of all disabled people are mentally disabled. Research shows that 1% of the population (as far as can be determined) and at least 3% of people with mental disabilities are mentally disabled. increase rate is thought to be a factor in this.
Today, there are more than 250 causes of mental disability. However, in most cases of mental disability, the exact cause or causes are not known. According to a study in the United States, half of the mildly mentally handicapped and 30% of the severely mentally handicapped are not known. The main reason for this is that the formation and development of the human organism is extremely complex.
The causes of mental disability vary according to the disability and are very diverse. Although the causes of disability are not known in some cases, we can group them under three main headings: prenatal, birth and postnatal reasons;
Prenatal Causes; Age of mother, nutrition, drugs used during pregnancy, habits such as drink-cigarette-drug, radiation exposure, psychological problems, consanguineous marriage, illnesses (especially during pregnancy), accidents, traumas, blood-mismatch between child and mother, genetically some of the reasons such as moving properties.
Causes of Birth Order; Premature births, cord entanglement, difficult and risky births, birth accidents, (such as dropping the baby), the use of instruments such as vacuum-forceps, especially in non-hygienic environments, births in non-hygienic environments can be listed as reasons.
Postnatal Causes; Exposure to infection, feverish diseases of the child, wrong and late intervention in diseases, malnutrition (insufficient and unbalanced nutrition), accidents-traumas, very inadequate environmental conditions.
If infectious diseases such as rubella, syphilis and toxoplasma directly or indirectly affect the brain before the birth of the pregnant mother, damage or injuries to the brain depending on the severity and severity of the brain, mental function retardation, hearing and vision, physical movements In the same way, infectious diseases such as meningitis, encephalitis, and encephalitis after childbirth can cause various damages in the brain. these paints are still on top of some old furniture and toys. Bullet taken by the child in high amounts can cause life-threatening and mental disability.
Anoxia, difficult and mediated births, rarely cause brain damage at the time of birth. As a result of the child's exposure to air during normal time, the nerve cells in the brain remain oxygen-free. damage occurs.
The nutrients taken from healthy individuals undergo various changes in a certain form and sequence in the body. In this case, the toxic substances that occur in the body as well as the development of the brain prevents the most common known metabolic disorders.
80-85% of the mentally handicapped are slightly backward. Most of them do not have any organic causes. In such cases, psychosocial disadvantage is shown as the cause.
There are two important benefits to knowing the causes of mental disability. First, if we know the reasons, at least we can prevent some of the mental disability, we can give some clues about preventive measures to the society. Second, knowing why or why gives us some clues about education.
Prepared by: Special Education Specialist Erdi Kanbaş
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